The first celebration of Republic Day (2 June) took place in 1947, during the difficult transition from dictatorship to democracy.
Since then, the efforts to implement the Constitution, a positive legacy of the tragic period of conflict and an invaluable achievement of the Resistance, has met with delays and opposition, leading to a fragile democracy. The institutional celebrations of 2 June have also seen many ups and downs, and the date has struggled to establish itself as a truly shared and participatory symbol of national identity.
The Cold War policies also affected the memorial processes of those years: the clash between the East and West led to the USSR and the Communist danger being identified as public enemy number one.
Since the end of the 1980s, the desire for a shared memory has been increasingly considered as requiring the end of the binary opposition between fascism and anti-fascism. Moreover, the anti-Resistance political parties have tried on many occasions to exploit for political purposes the violent episodes of the post-war period and, in particular, the complex and painful events of the Eastern border (the foibe and the forced exodus).
Instead, it is necessary to reaffirm that the the Resistance was a pivotal moment in the history of the nation. The Resistance, then, and the consequent decision to create a Republic, need to be seen as the fundamental building blocks of Italian democracy.